What is a lemon tree plant morphology?


Lemon fruit

1: Origin

Lemon fruit is native to South Asia primarily Northeast India (Assam).

2: Plant description

Common name: Lemon

Botanical name: Citrus limon (L.)

Family: Rutaceae

The tree has a spreading, upright growth habit, few large branches and stiff thorns.

The tree possesses large, oblong or oval, light green leaves and produces purple-white flowers in clusters.

The lemon fruit is an ellipsoid berry surrounded by a green rind, which ripens to yellow, protecting the soft yellow segmented pulp.

Lemon trees can reach 3–6 m (10–20 ft.) in height and can live for many years, reaching full fruit-bearing capacity in approximately 40 years.

3: Medicinal Uses

Lemon fruit juice and peel are used as medicines.

Used for the treatment of scurvy (deficiency of Vitamin C), flue and the common cold.

It is also used to aid digestion, reduce hay fever symptoms.

Reduce pain and swelling (inflammations).

In food used as a flavouring agent.

Lemon contain antioxidants called bioflavonoids. Researchers think these bioflavonoids are responsible for the health benefits of lemon.

4: Propagation

Two methods of propagation

Sexual propagation

The seed is used in sexual propagation method.

Lemon seeds can be successfully propagated, even from store-bought fruit. There is a drawback to using seed harvested from commercial fruit. The parent plant may be a hybrid, with a greater chance that the seed will produce a sterile tree. Even so, the plant will be aromatic and attractive, making it a worthwhile endeavour. Whenever possible, harvest fruit and seed from a known tree to ensure the best results.

A sexual method

Mostly two asexual methods are used in lemon plant propagation which are


Cuttings are another reliable means of propagating lemon trees. Take stem cuttings of 6 to 8 inches from new green growth. Remove all but the top two leaves. Apply rooting hormone to the base of the cutting, tapping off excess. Plant the cutting in a sterile growing medium or potting soil. Use a pencil, chopstick or another device to poke the hole into which the cutting is placed. That way, the hormone will not be dislodged in the planting process. Water well to firm the soil. Place the potted cutting in a sealed plastic bag to keep the humidity high. The fastest growth will be achieved in stable temperatures between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit, or with the application of bottom heat.


Propagation by layering has the advantage of providing larger, robust plants in less time than is possible with seeds or cuttings. Select a branch of new growth with a diameter of an approximately ½ inch. Remove a ring of bark from the branch ½ inch in width. Apply rooting hormone to the wound. Wrap moistened sphagnum moss around the treated area. Cover the moss with plastic wrap. Tape this bundle securely to retain the moisture. Roots will grow from the wound site while the parent plant is still providing nourishment for the branch. Cut the new plant from its parent when the roots have developed sufficiently to support it.

5: Planting distance

Standard-size lemon can grow 18 to 22 feet tall, whereas dwarf varieties only grow 8 to 12 feet tall.

6: Pit formation

Dig a trench half the distance from the trunk to the drip line that is a foot (30 cm.) across and 4 feet (1.2 m.) deep. Remove any big rocks or debris from the root system. Replant the tree and fill in with the same soil.
7: Transplanting time+ age of the plant

Lemon trees (Citrus Limon) may sport flowers and fruit at the same time. Dwarf lemon trees reach 6 to 15 feet tall, depending on the variety, while standard trees can grow as large as orange trees. 

Best time of transplanting is September October and February march.


Lemon-tree species (Citrus Limon) are subtropical: they do well in warm climates, tolerate drought and are highly sensitive to frost. Lemon trees thrive in temperatures between 77 and 86 degrees Fahrenheit but tolerate the high temperatures experienced in citrus regions.


Soil pH of 6.0 to 7.5, tolerate dry soil conditions but do not survive wet clay-heavy soils.

8: Flowering

Lemons ripen anywhere between four and 12 months after flowering. Flowers most commonly appear in spring; the fruit develops over summer, and then slowly turns from green to yellow in fall or winter.

9: Fertilizers

1-3/4 cups of phosphate fertilizer into the soil at planting time. 

A tree that is one to three years old requires 1/4 to 1/2 pound actual nitrogen per year. 

10: Irrigation

For a new tree transplant, the root ball requires between two and three watering sessions each week, depending on local soil and climate conditions. After one month, the tree needs only once-a-week watering so that the first several inches of soil is moist.

11: Pruning

While pruning lemon trees back will engender larger, healthier fruit, citrus wood is strong, and thus, less likely to break under the weight of a bumper crop than other fruiting trees. Citrus trees can also fruit throughout the tree, including shaded areas, so cutting back lemon trees to improve light availability is not necessary. That said, lemon trees should still be pruned on occasion.

12: Maturity& quality indices

A minimum juice content by volume of 28 or 30% depending on grade; colour lemons picked at the dark-green stage have the longest postharvest life while those picked fully-yellow must be marketed more rapidly.

Quality Indices

  • The yellow colour intensity and uniformity
  • Size
  • Shape
  • Smoothness; firmness
  • Freedom from decay
  • Freedom from defects including freezing damage, drying, mechanical damage, rind stains, red blotch, shrivelling, and discolouration.

13: Post-harvest

Grading and sorting

Treatment after harvest

The only fruit which has not been damaged in harvest are used for storage, although it is difficult to harvest fruit without some minor damage. Sometimes a chemical treatment is applied to the fruit before storage, to reduce the incidence of postharvest diseases.


Boxes should be stacked inside the storage room in a way that maintains good ventilation. For the first few weeks of storage, ventilation windows should be left open. Throughout the storage period, the windows should be left open at night or in cold weather, in order to cool the fruit.

14: Insect pest and diseases

Citrus leaf miner, lemon bud moth


Fruit fly

Aphids, Mealybugs, whiteflies,

15: Cultivars in Pakistan

EurekaLisbon Lemon and rough Lemon

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